A particularly rich and long era in naval matters, although rather limited in its study towards the Mediterranean. It began rouhly 1000 to 5000 years after the ice age. This period extends over the Bronze Age (3500 BC) and continues through the Iron Age (1200 BC) opening the classical era (500 BC). It corresponds to the first "civilizations" defined as such, and (in broad lines) especially those settling in West Asia, especially in the vast fertile plain between the Tigris and the Euphrates, Sumerians, Mesopotamians, and on the Nile, Egypt, or the first Yu Chinese empire early junks.

Further east, Indus civilization, represented by seven flourishing and modern cities-states on a river now disappeared (Mohendjo-Daro, Harappa). The Phoenicians of course, the first Mediterranean commercial empire from Tyr, first to ciscumnavigate Africa (Hanno) and travl beyond "Hercules columns". The Carthaginians (Punic) who founded Carthage (now Tunis) settled permanently in the Western Mediterranean and consolidated their own empire, in rivalty with the Greeks (Macedonians, Thracians and Illyrians included), who imposed their domination against the Persians, and eventually the Romans who made them "Mare Nostrum", and passed their traditions and strenght to the Byzantines, well into the end of the medieval era.


Antiquity around 200 BC, 127 years after Alexandre le Grand passed out.

The Romans also struggled against the last empires of the Diadochi (descendants of the generals of Alexander the Great), the Empire of the Ptolemies in Egypt, the Antigonids of Macedonia and Attalides of Pergamos, Rhodians, Seleucids... The battle of Actium (31 BC) which will mark the end of the Ptolemaic naval power will also illustrate the end of the pre-eminence of the heavy units and the triumph of the pragmatic Roman naval approach to naval warfare.

The fleet of Rome then having no enemy to fight, it was partially disarmed and Rome had to endure for centuries the constant threat of piracy in the Mediterranean. After the fall of Rome with the great invasions (400 BC), Constantinople took over by founding a navy capable of maintaining the naval superiority of the Byzantine empire, recovering and improving the Roman organization. But this story belongs to the Middle Ages ...

  •     Antiques ships Typology
  •     First Nile rafts, early riverine reed egyptian boats
  •     Nile Flat bottom wooden boats
  •     Nile Barques of the ancient empire.
  •     Merchant ship of the XIIIe dynasty (2500 av. J.C.)
  •     Keftion.
  •     Kepen.
  •     Phoenician Gaulos (Gaoul).
  •     Phoenician and Assyrian Penteconters.
  •     Greek Bronze age galleys: The Argo.
  •     Dikonteros and Trikonteros
  •     Pentakonteros.
  •     Greek Dieres.
  •     Greek Trieres.
  •     Large Hellenistic ships: Hexeres, Hepteres, Deceres.
  •     Hellenistic Hyper-galleys
  •     Greek coaster.
  •     Heavy greek cargo.
  •     Seleucid fleet.
  •     Lagid (Ptolemaic Egyptian) fleet.
  •     Lagid Tesserakonteros.
  •     Pentekonter.
  •     Roman Bireme.
  •     Roman Trireme.
  •     Roman Quadriremes and Quinqueremes.
  •     Roman Admiral ships, Octeremes et Deceremes.
  •     Actuaria.
  •     Liburnae.
  •     Hemioliae and derivatives.
  •     Roman coaster.
  •     Oneraria and Corbita
  •     Carthaginian fast galleys: Marsala ships
  •     Antiquity naval battles
  •     Carthaginian fleet.
  •     Macedonienne (Antigonid) fleet
  •     Lemboï
  •     Scapha
  •     Caudicaria
  •     Lintris
  •     Acatus
  •     Coracle
  •     Ponto
  •     Musculus
  •     Carabus
  •     Cymba
  •     Kélès
  •     Cybaea
  •     Actuariolum
  •     Cercurus

 

----Reconstitutions----------------

  •     ARGO & Argo II
  •     Diana Nemorensis
  •     De Meern
  •     Europa
  •     Ivlia
  •     Kyrenia
  •     Lusoria Regina
  •     Melqart
  •     Millingen Liburne
  •     Minoa
  •     Odessa
  •     Olympias
  •     Phoenicia
  •     Sobek
  •     Stella Noviomagi
  •     Uluburun

Sources & links:

http://www.ancientportsantiques.com/

https://snr.org.uk/classification-ancient-galleys/

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http://www.ss42.com/pt-boats.html