Phoenician-Assyrian-Bireme

The galleys of the Phoenician wars left no wreck, for just as the immense majority of the ancient galleys their coefficient of buoyancy remained positive. On the other hand, bas-reliefs inform us to a certain extent, since the engravers were not sailors, and these lithographic testimonies must be taken with a certain distance, and a naval carpenter's eye, leaving a part Reinterpretation. A model of terracotta is preserved in the museum of Haifa and shows one of these galleys, having a square sail, and quite narrow. A conformation adapted to the speed to the detriment of the place on board for the fighters, was solved by the innovation, taken again by the Greeks, of the gallery over the bridge.

The palace of Nineveh recounting the battle that took place beforehand (700 BC) confronting the forces of Sennacherib, the Son of the great King of Babylon Sargon II, and his biremes used as transports of armed troops on the Nâr Marratoum separating The Tigris and the Euphrates.
It was a "pentecontore" in the sense that it had 26 oars per side, more than 50 rowers. From the top of their gallery, the Assyrian archers, protected by their shields hanging from the bulwarks, had a good shooting platform. These ships were unusual for Assyrians, users of river boats. The Phoenicians used them since 1500 BC. J.C. They are the inventors, but seem to have been inspired by the Cretans for the spur.